Accusative: Who? What? - Biernik: Kogo? Co?

Accusative case expresses the object complement, also called direct object as it does not have prepositions before.

Object complement answers to the question "Who? What?" but it is not the subject.
e.g. "I see the dog": who/what do I see? The dog.
In Polish: "ja widzę psa", kogo/co ja widzę? Psa.

There are other situations in which we use accusative case:

- movement to some place:
  • after the prepositions"na / nad", which mean "towards", e.g. Hannibal goes towards Rome: Hanibal idzie na Rzym.
  • after the preposition "pod", which means "in front of", e.g. the taxi brough us  in front of our house: Taksówka podjechała pod dom.
  • after the preposition "w" with the meaning of "into", when the movement is into something (even metaforically), e.g. I glaze into the mirror: spoglądam w lustro.

- movement through/accross a place:
  • after the preposition "przez", which means "through/accross" e.g. I pass through Milan: przejeżdżam przez Mediolan.

- which some time contructions:
  • introduced by the preposition "za", which means "in, within", es. I'll arrive in half an hour: przyjeżdżam za pół godziny.
  • when we express a duration of time, e.g. I studied in that university for three years: studiowałem na tym uniwersytecie trzy lata.

- with some verbal construction which need the accusative case:
  • "dbać o", which means "take care / look after", e.g. I take care of my body: dbam kondycję
  • "czekać na", which means "waiting for something", e.g. I am waiting for the autobus:  czekam na autobus
  • "pytać o", which means "to ask about something or someone", e.g. I ask of you: pytam ciebie
  • "martwić się o", ovvero "to be worried about...", e.g. I worry about environmental problems: Martwię się o problemy środowiska naturalnego.

Singular Accusative

Masculine animated-ego-a
Masculine not animatedØØ

Maculine not animated and neutral are egual in their basic form: they have no ending.

Plural Accusative

Masculine Person- ch
It is egual to plural genitive:
- ów
Masculine Animal- e
It is egual to plural nominative:
- owie/y/i/e/a
Masculine Object- eIt is egual to plural nominative:- owie/y/i/e/a
Femminine- e
It is egual to plural nominative:- y
- i
- e
Neutral- e
It is egual to plural nominative:- a
- y
- i

Polish Accusative Pronouns

Ijame – e.g. He wants to eat memnie
youtyyou - e.g. He wants youciebie, cię
heonhim - e.g. I love himjego, go, niego
sheonaher - e.g. I like herją, nią
itonoit - e.g. I like itje, nie
wemyus – e.g. They accused usnas
youwyyou – e.g. We love youwas
they (masculine)onithem – e.g. We know themich, nich
they (feminine)onethem – e.g. We love themje, nie

Thos pronouns, just like nouns, must be declined.


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